Developed by Haydn Washington, Bron Taylor, Helen Kopnina, Paul Cryer and John J Piccolo
With editorial input from Patrick Curry, Ian Whyte, Joe Gray, Michelle Maloney and Mumta Ito
We, the undersigned, hold and advocate an ecocentric worldview that finds intrinsic (inherent) value in all of nature and the ecosphere.
Ecocentrism takes a much wider view of the world than does anthropocentrism, which sees individual humans and the human species as more valuable than all other organisms. Ecocentrism is the broadest of worldviews, but there are related worldviews. However, ecocentrism goes beyond biocentrism (ethics that sees inherent value in all living things) by including environmental systems as wholes and their abiotic aspects. It also goes beyond zoocentrism (seeing value in animals) on account of explicitly including flora and other organisms, as well as their ecological contexts. Given that life relies on geology and geomorphology to sustain it, and that 'geodiversity' also has intrinsic value, the broader term 'ecocentrism' is the more inclusive concept and value, and hence most appropriate.
We maintain that the ecosphere, including the life it contains, is an inherent good, irrespective of whether humans are the ones valuing it. It is true that (as far as we know) humans are the only species that reflects on and applies moral values. However, we can also understand that elements of the ecosphere have co-evolved to form a wondrous complexity – and contend that nature has value for itself. Ecocentrism recognizes that humans have responsibility towards the ecosphere, moral sentiments that are increasingly expressed in the language of rights. Such 'rights of nature' are now enshrined in some national constitutions, and are variously termed Earth jurisprudence, rights of nature, earth law and wild law.
Ecocentrism is important for multiple reasons:
In ethical terms: Ecocentrism expands the moral community beyond our own species, to all life, and indeed, to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems themselves. There is compelling philosophical and scientific justification for extending moral concern to all of the ecosphere, both its biotic and abiotic components.
In evolutionary terms: Ecocentrism reflects the fact that Homo sapiens evolved out of the ecosphere's rich web of life, which has a legacy stretching back an almost unimaginable 3.5 billion years. Other species literally are our cousins and relatives (close and distant) – a biological kinship that many have recognized as conferring moral responsibilities towards all species.
In spiritual terms: Historical and social scientific analysis demonstrates that many people (and some societies) have developed an ecocentric worldview. There is strong evidence that ecocentric values are increasingly being fused into nature-based, ecocentric spiritualities. With such spiritualties, even people who are entirely naturalistic in their worldviews often speak of the Earth and its ecosystems as sacred, and thus worthy of reverent care and defence.
In governance terms: Governance systems – including our legal, economic and political systems – must recognize the interdependence of ecological and social systems and be transformed to respect the rights of nature to exist, thrive and evolve.
In ecological terms: Ecocentrism reminds us that the ecosphere and all life is interdependent and that both human and nonhuman organisms are absolutely dependent on the ecosystem processes that nature provides. An anthropocentric conservation ethic alone is wholly inadequate for conserving biodiversity. Ecocentrism is rooted in an evolutionary understanding that reminds us that we are latecomers to what Aldo Leopold evocatively called the "odyssey of evolution". Ecology teaches humility, as we do not know everything about the world's ecosystems, and never will. This leads quite naturally to a precautionary approach towards all the systems that constitute the ecosphere, so that where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, a lack of full scientific certainty ought not to be used as a reason for postponing remedial action.
Although we hold an ecocentric worldview because we believe it is ethically just, we contend that it is also practical because it counters humanity's relentless drive towards 'dominion over nature'. Society's overconsumption and overexploitation of nature has led to global and accelerating degradation of the ecosphere. Ecocentrism encourages us to see the rest of life as our kin, something we should respect for its own sake as well as our own. Those with an ecocentric worldview cannot silently tolerate mass anthropogenic extinctions, nor the suffering that accompanies environmental degradation. Ecocentrism encourages empathy with life, listening to the land and, above all, taking action to protect and heal the planet. Ecocentrism can also help lead to a sustainable future by encouraging a sense of wonder about the world around us. This can help us find the ethics we require if we are to take the difficult actions needed to sustain the ecosphere that supports our society. Whether it involves solving global crises like climate change or mass extinction, or contributing to local initiatives, ecocentrism can help humanity seek sustainable solutions.
Everyone (even academics seeking objectivity) are influenced by their worldview, ethics and values. To date, most Western thought has been rooted in an anthropocentric worldview. Despite great progress on some environmental fronts, it has become increasingly clear that an anthropocentric worldview provides an insufficient basis for preserving ecospheric diversity. We maintain that a transformation towards an ecocentric worldview is a necessary path for the flourishing of life on Earth, including that of our own species.
We, the undersigned, are convinced that the future of our living planet is dependent upon the recognition of the intrinsic value of nature, and strong support for ecocentrism as a worldview. We all have a duty to communicate this whenever possible and to undertake, promote and endeavour to inspire action in accordance with this worldview. ■
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Total number of signatories to date: 585
Last updated: 2017-10-12
(Full list of signatories follows below)
Michael Paul Nelson (philosopher)
Reed Noss (conservation biologist)
Jeannie Baker (artist)
Tom Butler (deep ecologist)
J Baird Callicott (environmental philosopher)
Kathleen Dean Moore (philosopher)
David Casagrande (environmental anthropologist)
John Seed (deep ecologist)
Jonathon Porritt (environmentalist)
Herman Daly (ecological economist)
Philip Cafaro (environmental philosopher)
Zana Briski (artist)
Cormac Cullinan (environmental lawyer)
Daniel Janzen (conservation biologist)
Eileen Crist (environmental sociologist)
Ricardo Rozzi (conservation biologist)
Joanna Macy (deep ecologist)
John Vucetich (conservation biologist)
David Suzuki (environmentalist)
Marc Bekoff (compassionate conservationist)
Jane Goodall (primatologist)
William Rees (environmental scientist)
David Naguib Pellow (environmental sociologist)
Colin Soskolne (epidemiologist)
David Ehrenfeld (conservation biologist)
Michael Soulé (conservation biologist)
Paul Ehrlich (environmental scientist)
Anne Ehrlich (environmental scientist)
Sarah Darwin (botanist)
Holmes Rolston III (environmental philosopher)
Dr Haydn Washington – Adjunct Lecturer (PANGEA Research Centre, UNSW), Australia. Prof Bron Taylor – Professor of Religion, Nature and Environmental Ethics (University of Gainesville, Florida), USA. Dr Helen Kopnina – Assistant Professor, Anthropology (Leiden University and the Hague University of Applied Science), Netherlands. Paul Cryer – Conservationist (Applied Ecology Unit, African Conservation Trust), South Africa. Dr John J Piccolo – Associate Professor, Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (Karlstad University), Sweden. Dr Patrick Curry – Independent Scholar and Writer (The Ecological Citizen), UK. Ian Whyte – Naturalist (The Ecological Citizen), Canada. Joe Gray – PhD Candidate (Royal Holloway, University of London), UK. Karen Whyte – Artist, Canada. Romita Das – Organic Gardener, UK. John Ben Soileau – PhD Candidate in Cultural Anthropology (University of Illinois, Urbana–Champaign), USA. Jeff Todd Titon – Professor (Brown University), USA. Michael Martin – Assistant Professor of English (University of Charleston), USA. Rosemary Gianno – Professor (Keene State College), USA. Theresa Burriss – Chair, Appalachian Studies (Radford University), USA. Sandy Irvine (Green Party, England), UK. Engelbert Fellinger – Communications Professional and Teacher, Netherlands. Howard Clifford (Land Trusts), Canada. Brian Miller – Retiree, USA. Dr John R Coulter – Retired Scientist and Environmentalist, Australia. Eva Schlunke – Artist, UK. Jacob D Christensen – Eco-citizen, Taiwan. Dr Marsha Quinlan – Associate Professor, Anthropology (Washington State University), USA. Geoff Mosley – Australian Director of CASSE (Centre for Advancement of Steady State Economy), Australia. Jonathan Miller – Ecologist, Australia. Oscar Askling – Kalkningshandläggare (Länsstyrelsen Värmland), Sweden. Jenny Goldie – Science Journalist, Australia. Dr Lisa Roberts – Living Data Program Leader (University of Technology Sydney), Australia. Carina van Rooyen – Senior Lecturer, Anthropology and Development Studies (University of Johannesburg), South Africa. David Edward Robertson – Concerned Retiree (University of Queensland), Australia. Dr Jane O'Sullivan – Honorary Senior Research Associate, Australia. Michael D Sitka-Sage – Educator (Simon Fraser University), Canada. Robert Taylor – Retired Wildlife Conservationist, Australia. Noa Lincoln – Assistant Researcher (University of Hawai'i), USA. Reingard Spannring – Sociologist and Educational Scientist (University of Innsbruck), Austria. Prof Michael Paul Nelson – Professor of Environmental Ethics and Philosophy (Oregon State University), USA. Reed F Noss – Naturalist, USA. Mrs Regine Herzog, Guatemala. Lory S Kaufman – Writer, Canada. David Blackwell, EdD – Retired Educator, Canada. Dr Nejm Benessaiah – Postdoctoral Fellow (University of Maryland), USA. Dr Daniel O'Neill – Lecturer in Ecological Economics (University of Leeds), UK. Sam Bliss – PhD Student (University of Vermont), USA. Coyote Alberto Ruz Buenfil – Writer, Eco-activist and Historian (Rights of Mother Earth – Mexico), Mexico. Dr Rupert J Read – Reader in Philosophy and Chair of Green House (UEA), UK. Victor Anderson – Research Fellow (Green House), UK. Brian G Henning – Professor of Philosophy and Environmental Studies (Gonzaga University), USA. Sam Earle – PhD Candidate and Researcher (UEA/Perspectiva), UK. Steve Kiser – Citizen of Planet Earth, Netherlands. Linda Mosquin – Retired Teacher, Canada. Dr Ted Mosquin – Naturalist and Retired Ecologist, Canada. Cynthia Twyford Fowler – Associate Professor (Wofford College), USA. Frederick W Schueler, PhD – Research Curator (Fragile Inheritance Natural History), Canada. Cathel Hutchison – PhD Candidate, School of Architecture (University of Dundee), UK. Bernard Walke – Earthling, Canada. Wallace Platts – Student of Nature, Cayman Islands. Britt Roscoe – Environmental Planner, Canada. Lucille Kelly – Student (La Trobe University), Australia. Jack Stillwell – Retired Historian, USA. Vivek – Environmentalist (Centre for Science and Environment), India. Liam Lilly, Planet Earth. Emilie Hall – Marine Biologist, UK. Christopher Padley – Local Government Election Candidate, UK. JM Louro – Human Being, Portugal. Hannah Gray Kent – PhD Researcher (University of Leeds), UK. Michael Stanton – Environmental Social Scientist, USA. Gavin O'Donnell – Environmental Sciences Student (UEA), UK. Jeannie Baker – Children's Book Artist and Author, Australia. Rosalie Chapple – Ecologist (Blue Mountains World Heritage Institute), Australia. Anna Schlunke – Steady Stater, Australia. Matthew Washington – Treasurer (Centre for Advancement of Steady State Economy NSW), Australia. Tom Butler – Vice President (Foundation for Deep Ecology), USA. J Baird Callicott – University Distinguished Research Professor Emeritus (University of North Texas), USA. Kathleen Dean Moore – Author, USA. Luciana Figueiredo Jones – Citizen of Planet Earth, Australia. James Magnus-Johnston – Director (CMU Centre for Ecological and Economic Resilience), Canada. Phil Jones – Science Teacher, Australia. Dr Gary Luck – Professor of Ecology and Interdisciplinary Science (Charles Sturt University), Australia. Martin Johansson – Fish Keeper, Sweden. Larni Gryphon – Clinical Teaching Associate (James Cook University), Australia. Ruth Armstrong – Postgraduate Researcher (University of Leeds), UK. Erwin Dreessen, PhD, Canada. Natasha Oklobdzija, Australia. Erik Assadourian – Senior Fellow (Worldwatch Institute), USA. Denise Mendes de Figueiredo – Retired Dentist, Brazil. David Casagrande – Professor of Environmental Anthropology (Lehigh University), USA. John Seed – Activist (Rainforest Information Centre), Australia. Ann Pancake – Writer in Residence (University of Hawai'i Manoa), USA. Rosemary Bunting – Environmentalist (Open University), UK. Linda Heron – Chair (Ontario Rivers Alliance), Canada. Jessica Yuille – Environment Coordinator (Brahma Kumaris Australia), Australia. Manon Danker – Environmental Sociologist, Netherlands. Natália Britto dos Santos – PhD Student, Economics for the Anthropocene (York University, Toronto), Canada. Timothy Crownshaw – PhD Student (McGill University), Canada. Melissa Nicole Harnett – Student (Massey University), New Zealand. Jonathon Porritt (Forum for the Future), UK. Mitchell Thomashow – Independent Scholar and President Emeritus (Unity College), USA. Matthew Burke – Graduate Student, USA. Joshua C Farley – Professor of Ecological Economics (University of Vermont), USA. Adam Gilbertson – Anthropologist (UNC Chapel Hill), USA. Hal Anjo – Naturalist, USA. Michael H Stalder – Retired California State Park Ranger, USA. Sabrina Reiniger – Nature-lover, Germany. Christian Reiniger – Human, Germany. Ms Julie Favell, Australia. Renae Barton – Artist, Beekeeper and Ecocentrist (Bee House Art), USA. Vassiliki Betty Smocovitis – Professor, History of Science (University of Florida), USA. Mark M Thompson, PhD – Retiree, USA. Robert Boschman – Professor (Mount Royal University), Canada. William P Mueller – Director (Western Great Lakes Bird and Bat Observatory), USA. Herman Daly – Emeritus Professor, School of Public Policy (University of Maryland), USA. Gareth Newnham – Producer (Grasp The Nettle Films), USA. Peggy Sue McRae – Artist, USA. Daniel C Kline – CEO (ParaTechnica), USA. Robin M Wright – Doctor, Department of Religion (Univeristy of Florida), USA. Simmons Buntin – Editor-in-Chief (Terrain.org), USA. Tiago Costa Nepomuceno – PhD Candidate in Education and Environmental Philosophy (University of São Paulo), Brazil. Stephen Mulkey – Program Director (NSF), USA. Bonnie Ralston – Educator, USA. Paul Sieracki – Geospatial Analyst and Wildlife Biologist, USA. Jack Lindsay Coxon – Student (La Trobe University), Australia. Kristina Tiedje – Associate Professor of Anthropology (Université Lyon 2 - France), USA. Dominic – Technical Support Worker, UK. Jorge Domingos Bastos Moreira – Environmentalist and Researcher (Ecologia Espiritual), Portugal. Lukas Hardt – PhD Student (University of Leeds), UK. Ms Paula Sapage, Portugal. Alexandra Monteiro Marcelino – Lawyer, Portugal. Elisabeth de Boisgelin, UK. Daniel J Shevock – University Music Teacher (Penn State Altoona), USA. Ana Patrícia Oliveira Alves – Empregada de Mesa, Portugal. Jack Hunter – Anthropologist (Sector39), UK. Gabriela Tymowski-Gionet – Associate Professor (University of New Brunswick), Canada. Grant Hugh Potts – Associate Professor of Religion and Philosophy (Austin Community College), USA. Michael Parkes – Awakened Person, Canada. Andrew Jameton (Health Professionals for a Healthy Climate and Physicians for Social Responsibility), USA. Philip Cafaro – Professor of Philosophy (Colorado State University), USA. Damien Delorme – Philosopher (L'IRPhiL, Université Lyon 3), France. Ruth Thomas-Pellicer – Independent Philosopher, Spain. Olinda Neves – Teacher of Biology and Geology, Cabo Verde. Ronnie Zoe Hawkins – Environmental Philosopher, Costa Rica. Dr Anita Norman – Postdoctoral Research Associate (San Diego Zoo Global), USA. Fred Hageneder – Naturalist, Author and Musician, UK. Dr Elisabeth Sommer – Retired Professor of Linguistics (University of Central Florida), USA. Alexandra Gomes – Analyst, Portugal. Keelah Lam – Environmental activist, Australia. Zana Briski – Artist and Academy Award-winner, USA. Steven Matema – Social Ecologist (African Conservation Trust), South Africa. Geoff Clinning – Technician (Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife), South Africa. Julie Carlisle – Community and Environmental Project Developer, South Africa. Mike Wibberley – Psychotherapist, UK. Martin Drenthen – Associate Professor (Radboud University), Netherlands. Pete Ruinard – Conservation Manager (Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife), South Africa. Melanie Andrej – Writer, Independent Scholar and Teacher, Austria. Dave Gardner – Director of the GrowthBusters Documentary (GrowthBusters), USA. George F Schlosser – Conservation Lawyer, USA. Sarah E Robinson-Bertoni – Lecturer (Santa Clara University), USA. Paul Havemann – Natural Resources Manager (John Muir Institute of the Environment), USA. Anna Cimini – Research Assistant (Brown University), USA. Peter S Goodman – Conservation Ecologist (Wildlife Conservation Solutions), South Africa. Darren Frederick Speece – Historian (Sidwell Friends School), USA. Lorraine Code – Distinguished Research Professor, Philosophy (York University), Canada. Marcus Intinarelli – Organic/Biodynamic Farmer (Thompson Creek Farm), USA. Alcide Gonçalves – Landscape Architect, Portugal. Joel Kassiola – Professor of Political Science (San Francisco State University), USA. Prof PG Harris – Chair and Professor of Global and Environmental Studies (Education University of Hong Kong), Hong Kong. Stephen R Griego – Instructor and PhD Candidate (University of New Mexico), USA. Sílvia Brandão – Artist, Portugal. Ross D'Orfani – Student, USA. Star Char Lema – Co-Founder, Sacred Rose Council (School of Sacred Arts and Sciences), USA. Gwyn Wahlmann, USA. Mike Vandeman – Wildlife Activist, USA. Irene Mommers – Director, Nutrition and Health (BeBright), Netherlands. Wanda Ballentine, USA. Paul Sandford – Druid and Interfaith Minister, UK. Linda Cooper – Volunteer Co-ordinator (Brahma Kumaris), Australia. Paul Jennings – Conservationist, South Africa. Michael Bull, Australia. Lauren Barwick – Earth Guardian, South Africa. Hardy Loubser, South Africa. Dr Tanmoy Bhattacharya – Professor (University of Delhi), India. Paul Beswick – Peacenik, UK. Patricia Ferguson – Retiree, Australia. Maria João – Ecologia, Portugal. Alf Seegert – Professor (University of Utah), USA. Dr Anna Grichting – Assistant Professor, Architecture and Urban Planning, Qatar. Leslie Adams – Global Citizen taking action for Biodiversity (BioDiversity Matters), Canada. Cormac Cullinan – Environmental Lawyer (Global Alliance for the Rights of Nature), South Africa. Grant Lowe – Self-employed, Canada. Stephen McKevitt – Retired Historian, USA. Alison Whalley (Green Party, England and Wales), UK. Luis Gutierrez – Editor (Mother Pelican Journal of Solidarity and Sustainability), USA. Marjie Tomter – Director/Coordinator (Ozaukee Washingotn Land Trust/OzaukeeTreasures Network), USA. Pip Hayes – Mother, Doctor and Population Activist, UK. Michael G Hanauer – Overpopulation and Sustainability Activist (Future Generations), USA. Daniel Janzen – Professor of Conservation Biology (University of Pennsylvania), USA. Priscilla Mattison – Attorney, USA. Christine Holland Cummings – Citizen of Earth, USA. Alasdair Wilson – Community Activist, UK. Dr Sailesh Rao – Executive DIrector (Climate Healers), USA. Marcus Bussey – Senior Lecturer in History and Futures, Australia. Sterling Lee Slavick Barlow – Author and Retired Science educator, USA. Albert Rich – Applied Logician, USA. David Taylor – Director (EarthSpirit), UK. Dr Michael A Giannelli – Retired Psychologist and Animal Advocate, USA. Michele Chavez-Pardini – Mediator, USA. Mark Hixon – Hsiao Endowed Professor of Marine Biology (University of Hawai'i), USA. Jonathan Boyne – Librarian (University of Hawai'i), USA. Christian Bulesz – Thinker, Netherlands. Meg O'Mahony – Retired Educator, Canada. Peter Carter – Director (Climate Emergency Institute), Canada. Taehyun Park – Professor (Kangwon National University of Korea), Republic of Korea. Christopher J Aitchison – Citizen, Australia. Abhik Gupta – Professor (Assam University), India. Freda van den Broek – Naturalist, USA. Ms Kelly Pomeroy – Retired, USA. John Broussard – Retired, USA. John J Finazzo Sr – President, USA. Bonnie Shemie – Self-employed, Canada. Rob Harding – Environmental Activist, USA. Timothy William Read – Master's Student and Social and Environmental Activist, Australia. Matt Grisko – Educator, USA. Tarik Bodasing – Ecologist, South Africa. Melissa Everett – General Practitioner, UK. Rob Irvine – Nonhuman Animal Ethics and Advocate (University of Sydney), Australia. Paul May – Ecocentrist, Australia. Garey Mills – Retiree, Spain. Anouk Pinchetti – Project Manager (New Systems Hub), Australia. Vanessa Smith – Direct Support Professional, Canada. Eileen Crist – Associate Professor (Virginia Tech), USA. Craig K Harris – Associate Professor (Michigan State University), USA. Jeremy T Bruskotter – Associate Professor (School of Environment & Natural Resources, Ohio State University), USA. Stephanie Moran – Artist, UK. Ricardo Rozzi – Director, Sub-Antarctic Biocultural Conservation Program (University of North Texas and University of Magallanes), USA and Chile. Mark Hollidge – Writer, UK. Bernard Little – Concerned Citizen, UK. Josephine F Wideman – Executive Director (Californians for Population Stabilization), USA. Liesje Barratt – Assistant Coordinator, Faith Ecology Network (CMI, Centre for Peace, Ecology and Justice), Australia. Joanna Macy, PhD – Deep Ecologist, Writer and Activist (The Work That Reconnects), USA. Maria Kay Fotopoulos – Editor and Writer (Animal Lives Matter), USA. Peter Raimondo – Transformational Guide (Purely Wild Foundation), South Africa. J Anthony Cassils – Ontologist, Canada. Roger Creagh-Osborne – Mammal (Bioregion of Cornwall), UK. John A Vucetich – Professor (Michigan Technological University), USA. Sabrina Chakori – Environmental Economist, Switzerland and Australia. Patricia Vickers-Rich – Geologist (Swinburne University and Monash University), Australia. Craig Reid – Member of the Food Chain, Malawi. Wayne McLellan – Retiree, USA. Sandra Lubarsky – Emeritus Professor (Northern Arizona University), USA. Leon Trembath – Retired Fire Fighter, Australia. Dr Julia Peck – Academic Subject Leader, Photography (University of Gloucestershire), UK. Guido Dalla Casa – Engineer, Writer and Teacher (Comparative Philosophy School), Italy. Robert Sessions – Environmental Activist, USA. Susan Gallinger – Citizen Scientist, Canada. William Forbes – Associate Professor of Geography (Stephen F Austin State University), USA. Fiona Weir – Retiree, UK. Andrew McLaughlin – Professor Emeritus (Lehman College), USA. Michael D Novack – Retiree, USA. Louis Beckerling – Penitent Retiree, Australia. Andrei Călin Dumitrescu – Linguist (University of Helsinki), Finland. Ryan Quinn – PhD Candidate, Australia. Tom Baxter – Communications Officer (Greenpeace East Asia), China. Gregory Moulinet – Co-Founder and Communications Director (Biocentric Society), China. Vachel Miller – Associate Professor (Appalachian State University), USA. Katarina Hovden – Recent LLM Graduate and Volunteer (Nature's Rights), Norway. Gaia Baracetti – Writer, Italy. David Molina Motos – PhD Candidate in Philosophy of Education (Universiad Nacional de Educación a Distancia), Spain. Ben Phalan – Research Associate (Oregon State University), USA. Charlotte Payne – PhD Student (University of Cambridge), UK. Olivia Bina – Principal Researcher (Instituto de Ciências Sociais, Universidade de Lisboa), Portugal. Mary McAfee Sealing – Integral Ecologist, USA. David Takayoshi Suzuki – Emeritus Professor, Zoology (University of British Columbia), Canada. Rupayan Bhattacharyya – Person Interested to be part of Ecocentrism Movement (International Institute for Ecological Civilization), USA. Marc Bekoff – Professor Emeritus, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology (University of Colorado, Boulder), USA. Ruud Maarschall, MSc – Board Member (Dutch Water Authority), Netherlands. Michele Testa – Hacktivist, Italy. Joanna Clark – Director of Operations (AIDS Education Global Information System), USA. Joseph Carson – Licensed Professional Engineer, USA. Thomas Houssein Makled – Graduate Student in Natural Resources (University of Michigan), USA. Ruxandra Vintila – Research Scientist (ICPA Bucharest), Romania. John Blewitt – Writer and Editor (Green House), UK. Jane Goodall, PhD DBE – Founder (The Jane Goodall Institute), UK. David Pointon – Human, Australia. NAJ Taylor (RMIT University), Australia. Jonathan Edelmann – Assistant Professor of Religion (University of Florida), USA. Emily Holden – Teacher, UK. Ewa Orlikowska – PhD Student (SLU – Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences), Sweden. Dr Mokhtar – Academician (Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia), Malaysia. Richard Walker – Lecturer (Northbrook College), UK. William E Rees – Professor Emeritus (Human Ecology and Planning) (University of British Columbia), Canada. Dr Stephen Cave – Executive Director, Leverhulme Centre for the Future of Intelligence (University of Cambridge), UK. Melinda Painton – Designer, UK. Joel Robinson – Writer and Filmmaker, Australia. Piper Rodd – Lecturer (Deakin University), Australia. Don Cameron, BVSc – Conservationist and Naturalist, Australia. Mumta Ito – Lawyer, Founder and CEO (Nature's Rights), UK. Ana Fernandez Cebrian – Assistant Professor (Columbia University), USA. Michael Dowd – Pro-future Evangelist (The Great Story), USA. Michelle Maloney – National Convenor (Australian Earth Laws Alliance), Australia. Steven Earl Salmony – Retired Psychologist (AWAREness Campaign on the Human Population), USA. Joydeb Majumder – Coordinator, Natural Resource Management and Environment (North East Rural Livelihood Project), India. Don – Teacher and Professor (North Eastern Hill University, Shillong), India. Dr Seba Roy – Associate Professor, Zoology (Gurucharan College, Silchar, Assam), India. Rory Turner – Founder, Cultural Sustainability MA (Goucher College), USA. Solanlly Carrero Jiménez – Biologist (Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Santo Domingo), Dominican Republic. Don Chisholm – Retiree (Gaia Preservation Coalition), Canada. Moirangthem Banita Devi – Enologist (Assam University, Silchar), India. Matthew Hall – Author ('Plants as Persons') (Victoria University of Wellington), New Zealand. Jasmin Wilson – Outdoor Recreation Instructor, Australia. Sreekanta Chakraborty – Retired Banker, India. Vince Fiorito – Politician, Canada. Jessica Sweidan – Founding Trustee (Synchronicity Earth), UK. Marina Dp – Student, Spain. Gigi Levins-Skehill – Massage Therapist, Australia. Janice Sukhiani – Observer, Canada. Linda Gill – Ecocentric Activist, Australia. Mark Radford – Window Installe, Australia. Sylvia Pozeg – Artist, Canada. Kris Mandell, USA. Gabriel Lavinsky Jardim – Architect (Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo), Brazil. Dido Goldsmith – Author, UK. Sheila Voss – Vice President of Education (Missouri Botanical Garden), USA. Leah Gibbons – Sustainability Consultant and PhD Student (Arizona State University), USA. Tejinder Gill – Sustainability and Waste Education Officer, Australia. Louisito L Madronio – Administrative Aide (University of Eastern Philippines), Philippines. Ms Lin Westler – Biology Instructor, USA. Jamie Wallace – Permaculture Practitioner, Canada. Gelant Sanjaya – Environmental Health Student (Universitas Indonesia), Indonesia. Ms Doris Ragettli (Rights of Mother Earth), Switzerland. Alder Luke MoonOak – Professor (College of Central Florida), USA. Star (Lin) Aasved – Independent Nature Photographer and Naturalist, USA. John Johnson – Former Eco-activist and Current Assistant Research Forester, USA. Dr Çağdaş Dedeoğlu – Assistant Professor of Political Science (Istanbul Arel University), Turkey. Dr Simon Michaux – Senior Research Officer (University of Liège), Belgium. Eleanor Shoreman-Ouimet – Environmental Anthropologist (University of Connecticut), USA. Hilary B Booker, PhD – Environmental Ethicist and Holistic Health Researcher, USA. Anna Willow – Associate Professor of Anthropology (Ohio State University), USA. Domenico D'Alesandro – President, Lead Design (D'Alessandro and Associates), USA. Dr L Jen Shaffer (University of Maryland, College Park), USA. Teferi Abate Adem – PhD in Anthropology, Human Relations Area Files (Yale), USA. Fiona C Wilmot – Restoration geographer, Mexico. Karen Marie Greenough – Social Anthropologist (West African Science Service Centre on Climate Change and Adapted Land Use), Burkina Faso. Andraya Vantrease – Steward of the Earth, USA. Mary Hufford – Livelihoods Knowledge Exchange Network, USA. Dan Sherburne – Citizen, USA. Bethany Ojalehto – Postdoctoral Fellow, Psychology (Northwestern University), USA. Giulia Sansoni – Practitioner, Sweden. Gordon Kubanek – Retiree, Beekeeper and Franciscan, Canada. Shruti Desai – PhD Student (Goldsmiths, University of London), UK and USA. Samwel LS Maganga – Associate Professor (Sokoine University of Agriculture), Tanzania. Jessica L Delgado – Market Intelligence Coordinator and Fellow (Women's World Banking), USA. Richard Alan Smith – Natural Resource Specialist (USFWS), USA. Felice Wyndham – Ecological Anthropologist, USA. Jordan Fisher Smith – Author, USA. Rev F Mark Mealing, PhD – Retired Professor and Non-retired Priest (Selkirk C0llege, Castlegar, B.C), Canada. David Naguib Pellow – Dehlsen Professor of Environmental Studies (UC Santa Barbara), USA. Jonathan Dawson – Senior Lecturer, Economics (Schumacher College), UK. Joshua Lockyer – Associate Professor of Anthropology (Arkansas Tech University), USA. Shaun Chamberlin – Author (Dark Optimism), UK. Celia Brauer – Master's Student (University of British Columbia), Canada. Kate Ferris – Ethics Officer (La Trobe University), Australia. Colin Lionel Soskolne – Epidemiologist (University of Alberta), Canada. Donald William Spady – Adjunct Professor of Paediatrics (University of Alberta), Canada. Klaus Bosselmann – Professor of Law (NZ Centre for Environmental Law, University of Auckland), New Zealand. Mei Abraham Elderadzi – Human, Croatia. Paul Evans – Retiree, UK. Raiza Campregher – PhD Student (UFSCar), Brazil. Pat Brereton – Head of School (Dublin City University), Ireland. Frank Garrett Boudinot – PhD Student, Geology (CU Boukder), USA. Dr Graham St John – Senior Research Fellow (University of Fribourg), Switzerland. Liza Grandia – Associate Professor (University of California, Davis), USA. Graham Harvey – Professor of Religious Studies (The Open University), UK. Wendy Griffin – Academic Dean (Cherry Hill Seminary), USA. David Ehrenfeld – Distinguished Professor of Biology (Rutgers University, New Jersey, US), USA. Brooke Hecht – President (Center for Humans and Nature), USA. Edson Grandisoli – PhD Candidate (University of São Paulo), Brazil. Michael Thomason – Physicist, Guide to the Global Transition (University of Colorado Boulder and Boulder Rights of Nature), USA. David Abram – College Fellow (Schumacher College), USA. Michael Soulé – Professor Emeritus (UCSC), USA. Ralph H Metzner – Psychotherapist and Ecopsychologist (California Institute of Integral Studies), USA. Mark Lawrence – Scientific Director (Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies), Germany. Dell deChant – Master Instructor and Chair, Religious Studies Department (Univeristy of South Florida), USA. Michael Sheridan – Associate Professor of Anthropology (Associate Professor of Anthropology), USA. Vanessa Spedding – Writer, UK. Sharon M Wells – Concerned Pantheist and Health Documentation Specialist, USA. Eve Oostendorp – Student (Vossius Gymnasium), Netherlands. Gavin Van Horn – Director, Cultures of Conservation (Center for Humans and Nature), USA. David G Maskalick, PhD – Retired Research Scientist (Eli Lilly & Co), USA. Paul Collins – Writer and Broadcaster, Australia. Brenda Fitzpatrick – PhD Candidate (University of British Columbia), Canada. Joan Hardingham – Biologist, Naturalist and Early Years Educator, UK. Gary Rose – Citizen of Planet Earth, USA. Frederique Apffel-Marglin – Anthropologist Emerita and Founder of the Sachamama Center for Biocultural Regeneration (Smith College), USA. Claire O'Neill – President and Founder (Earthwise Aware), USA. James Harrod – Director (Center for Research on the Origins of Art and Religion), USA. Roger Clooney – Concerned Pensioner, UK. Marie Manhardt – Doctor, USA. Gordon Weese – Retiree, Canada. Thomas L Poulson – Ecologist and Emeritus Professor (University of Illinois at Chicago), USA. Paul R Ehrlich – Bing Professor of Population Studies Emeritus (Stanford University), USA. Anne Ehrlich – Senior Scientist Emerita, Biology Department (Stanford University), USA. Titilia Rabuatoka – Private Consultant, Fiji. Allison Fulton – Writing Associate Fellow (Oberlin College), USA. Dr Justine Philip – Ecosystem Management Scholar (University of New England and Museum Victoria), Australia. Jeffrey Kershner – Research Fisheries Biologist, USA. Nicci Attfield – PhD Student (Wits University), South Africa. Debal Deb – Ecologist (Centre for Interdisciplinary Studies), India. Madeline Weld – President (Population Institute Canada), Canada. Paul-Francois Tremlett – Senior Lecturer, Religious Studies (The Open University), UK. David Bianco – Biologist, Italy. Jacqueline Cleminson CD – Retired Nurse and Captain (Canadian Forces), Canada. Brian Stafford, MD MPH – Founder (Wilderness Is Medicine), USA. Anton Nemeth – Ceramic Artist, USA. Dr Saamdu Chetri – Executive Director (Gross National Happiness Centre), Bhutan. Paweena Kitsirisin – Graduate Student (Thammasat University), Thailand. Maria Lavis – Recovering Environmental Professional, Canada. Brian Zimmerman – Chief Curator (Zoological Society of London), UK. Dr Gregoire Wallenborn – Sustainable Energy Researcher (Free University of Brussels), Belgium. Dr Chris Johansen – Agricultural Scientist, Australia. Crispin Balfour – Psychotherapist and Ecopsychologist, New Zealand. Esteban Suarez – Professor (Universidad San Francisco de Quito), Ecuador. Viktor Siagian (Banten Assessment Institute for Agricultural Technology), Indonesia. Dr Peter Jones – Senior Lecturer (James Cook University), Australia. Roger Harris – Founder (Biodiversity Professionals), USA. France Thapo – Senior Human Resource Officer (Botswana Housing Corporation), Botswana. Elaine Nogueira-Godsey – Assistant Professor of Theology, Ecology and Race (Methodist Theological School in Ohio), USA. Anthony Biegen – Software Developer, USA. Michael A Lewis, PhD – Retiree, USA. Kathy Faldt – Conservation Volunteer (Logan and Albert Conservation Association), Australia. Cedric Knight – Independent Researcher, UK. Stephen Weller – Actor, UK. Kocku von Stuckrad – Professor of Religious Studies (University of Groningen), Netherlands. Wesley Todd Plummer – Proprietor (Wild Marin Nature Tours), USA. Chas S Clifton – Volunteer Wildlife Transporter (Colorado Parks & Wildlife), USA. Yasemin Charles – Translator of Philosophy, France. José Pablo Prado Córdova – Tenured Lecturer (Faculty of Agronomy, University of San Carlos), Guatemala. Girish Punjabi – Conservation Biologist, India. Ramadhan Mohammed – University Lecturer (University of Duhok), Iraq. Ross Brownscombe – Writer, Photographer, Woodworker and Surfer, Australia. Alexander Lautensach – Associate Professor (University of Northern British Columbia), Canada. Andrew Walton – Project Coordinator (Bioregion Birmingham), UK. Bart Everson – Media Artist (Xavier University of Louisiana), USA. Alfred Bernhard – Bushland Manager (Willoughby City Council), Australia. Alissa Jones Nelson – Doctor, Germany. Robert Jensen – Professor (University of Texas at Austin), USA. Bruce Prescott – Retiree, USA. Koos de Koeijer – Entrepreneur in Sustainability, Netherlands. Philippe Sibaud – Earthling, UK. Petra Stapp – Writer, Philosopher and Animal Lover, UK. Cansu E Dedeoglu – Researcher, Turkey. Neslihan Dolgun – Biologist, Turkey. Emre Ertegün – Whole-lover, Turkey. Anita de Melo – Lecturer (University of Cape Town), South Africa. Kathryn Gander – Teacher of Deaf People (Durham County Council), UK. Beth Carruthers – Philosopher, Cultural Ecologist and Artist, Canada. Bilgesu Tutal – Biologist, Turkey. Eric Rimmer – (Human) Population Activist (Population Matters), UK. Garry Rogers – Biogeographer (Agua Fria Open Space Alliance, Inc), USA. Philippe Léna – Emeritus Researcher (IRD/MNHN), France. Renee DeMartin – Wildlife Photographer and Jeweler, USA. Deborah Thompson – Retired Law Enforcer, USA. Paul Adrian Broady – Academic Researcher, New Zealand. Gary O Grimm, USA. Linda Kruhmin – Person Inspired by the Earth, USA. Ana Catarina de Freitas Torradinhas – Earthling, Portugal. Ryan Danby – Associate Professor (Queen's University), Canada. Ludovic Viger – Druidovik (Green Wizard), Canada. John Rivière-Anderson – Permaculture Practitioner (Proikos Green Aquaculture), Canada. Donald Bruce Turton – Retiree, Canada. Dr Rebecca R Burrill – Ecological Dancer, Movement-based Child Developmentalist and Independent Scholar, USA. Dr Ian RC Baird – Ecologist, Australia. Theodore John Parvu Jr – Philosopher, USA. Rich Blegen – Scientific Pantheist, USA. Belgin Ergül – Forester (DenizTemiz Derneği), Turkey. Lydia Scherr – Earth Rigths Advocate, USA. Adrian Ayres Fisher – Gardener, Writer and Quaker, USA. Andrew Martin – Professor, Educator, Evolutionist and Ecologist (University of Colorado), USA. Judith Weis – Professor Emerita – Marine Biology (Rutgers University), USA. John Hill – Retiree, USA. Lisa Coedy – Eco-activist, USA. Emily Rose Stadvec – Concerned Citizen, USA. Bruce Graves – Person, Turkey. Eoghan Daltun – Plain Member of the Biotic Community, Ireland. Don Saunders – Professor (University of South Florida), USA. Teresa Capetola – Lecturer (Deakin University), Australia. Prof David Lindsay Mowbray – Professor of Environmental Science and Sustainable Development (University of Papua New Guinea), Papua New Guinea. Pius Piskaut – Ecologist (University of Papua New Guinea), Papua New Guinea. Hobert Asari – Student of Sustainable Development (University of Papua New Guinea), Papua New Guinea. Jonathan Dean Stead – Graduate (University of Huddersfield), UK. A Ergin Duygu – Biologist and Retired Academic, Turkey. Aygül Akkuş – Urban and Environmental Scientist (Ankara University), Turkey. Aygün Karlı – Student, Turkey. Yigit Karagol – Student, Turkey. Aaron S Allen – Director, Environmental and Sustainability Studies Program (UNC Greensboro), USA. Bill Michalek – Teacher (SUNY at Buffalo), USA. Walhos Palisa – Lecturer (University of Papua New Guinea), Papua New Guinea. Neslihan Kaya – Confectioner, Turkey. Cedric S Woods – Independent (BioLists), New Zealand. Tamsin Pearson – Writer and Student of Ecopsychology, UK. Dan Stokols – Research Professor and Chancellor's Professor Emeritus (University of California, Irvine), USA. Tarun Nair – Conservation Biologist, India. Mia Monroe – Park Ranger (National Park Service), USA. Sonia Fargue, MD PhD – Researcher in Biomedical Sciences (University of Alabama at Birmingham), USA. Dr Hayal Desta – Assistant Professor of Environmental Planning (Addis Ababa University), Ethiopia. Eunice Blavascunas – Assistant Professor of Anthropology and Environmental Studies (Whitman College), USA. Kevin Frediani – Operations Manager (National Trust for Scotland), UK. Dr Sarah Darwin – Dr (Nightingale.Berlin), Germany. Anne Fremaux – French Philosophy Teacher and PhD Candidate (Queen's University (Belfast)), Germany. Hilary Leighton – Assistant Professor (Royal Roads University), Canada. Ben Murrell – Teacher and Gardener, UK. Anitra Nelson – Honorary Associate Professor, Centre for Urban Research (RMIT University), Australia. Chris Knapman – Environmentalist and Arborist, UK. Matthew Coopet – Director (Tree Research, Education and Environmental Services), UK. Robert Oselio – Human, USA. Garry Rogers, PhD – Nature Conservation Advocate (Agua Fria Open Space Alliance, Inc), USA. Şanver İsmailoğlu – Geologist and Writer (bianet.org), Turkey. Holmes Rolston III – University Distinguished Professor (Colorado State University), USA. Peter Jingcheng Xu – Poet, Translator and Researcher (Bangor University), UK. Dr Manfred Hellrigl – Director (Office for Future Related Issues), Austria. Priscilla Stuckey – Writer on Nature Spirituality, USA. Leland Bowen – Retiree, USA. Cynthia Green – Eco-writer, USA. Margret Hamilton – Manager, USA. Judith Roderick – Artist, USA. Dorothy Bowen – Artist, USA. Barbara Voss – Artist and Writer, USA. Cyndi Moriarty – Beekeeper, USA. Dr Oluyemi Ayorinde Akintoye – Senior Lecturer and Researcher, Department of Geography and Environmental Science (University of Calabar), Nigeria. Veronica Strang – Professor of Anthropology (Institute of Advanced Study, Durham University), UK. Fidisoa Rasambainarivo – Wildlife Veterinarian, Madagascar. Risa M Mandell – Clinical Social Worker (Humane Herald [Contributor]), USA. Maureen Korp, PhD – Lecturer and Writer, Canada. Ash Collins – Earth Warrior, USA. William Smith – Postdoctoral Researcher (RMIT University), Australia. Bronya Eleanor Driver-Mach – Environmental Scientist, Australia. Shan Gao – Associate Professor (Soochow University), China. Maria Teresa La Valle – Professor (Universidad Nacional de Tres de Febrero), Argentina. Sonny Iamge – Student (University of Papua New Guinea), Papua New Guinea. Francisco Mata-Rabasa – Director (Sobirania Alimentària del País Valencià), Spain. Aino Leskinen – Support Worker, UK. Yuvraj Saharan – Environmental Researcher, India. Rubens Pauluzzo – Adjunct Professor (University of Udine), Italy. Rodrigo García Píngaro – Activist and Marine Conservationist (Org. Conservación Cetáceos/Oceanosanos), Uruguay. Terence Gibbin Brown – Architect and Deep Ecology Devotee, UK. Marlene Wenner – Student, Sweden. Steven J McGee – CEO (Simple Wins Concepts), USA. Elaine Codling – Permaculture Design Consultant, Canada. Anja Claus – Editor and Curator (Center for Humans and Nature), USA. Jeremy Ohmes – Communications Manager (Center for Humans and Nature), USA. Dr Tobiasz Cwynar – Independent Scholar, Poland. Suki Abbott – Nature-led Psychotherapist, UK. Rishi Kumar Sharma – Ecologist (WWF), India. TR Shankar Raman – Ecologist and Writer (Nature Conservation Foundation), India. Lace Lively – Research Intern, USA. Isabel Carrera – Student, USA. Wayne Tyson – Ecosystem Restoration and Management, USA. Beth Mcdonald – Zookeeper, USA. Judy Cummings – Teacher and Environmental Advocate, USA. Angela Fiore – Zoologist, USA. Kyenne Williams – Sustainability and Waste Reduction Specialist, USA. Jim Clements – Concerned Inhabitant of Earth, USA. Mary Zeiss Stange – Professor Emerita and Author (Skidmore College), USA. Rebecca Damron – Professor, USA. Jan N Parker-Padley – Concerned Person, UK. Amy Youngs – Artist (Ohio State University), USA. Julian Crawford – Environmentalist (EcoSTEPS – Sustainability Partner), Australia. De Antoni Giorgio, PhD (Universidade Católica de Brasilia), Brazil. Stephen Siperstein – Environmental Educator (Choate Rosemary Hall), USA. Jesper Saxgren, Denmark. Laurie Sumiye – Hawai'i Ecoartist and Filmmaker, USA. Heather Hill – Psychotherapist, USA. Andrea Kalfoglou – Associate Professor (University of Maryland, Baltimore County), USA. Patricia Coleman – Naturalist, USA. Tom Kerns, PhD – Director (Environment and Human Rights Advisory), USA. Bob Sauerbrey – Teacher (OLLI University of Cincinnati), USA. Lauren Choplin – Communications Director (The Nonhuman Rights Project), USA. Pennie Stasik O'Grady – Writer, USA. Adriana Aquino – Biologist (American Museum of Natural History), USA. Cathy Belchak Geraghty – Director, Strategic Partnerships and Initiatives, USA. Kathryn Barlow – Ecologist, USA. John L McNulty – Associate Professor of Psychology, University of Tulsa. Julia Denos – Author and Illustrator, USA. Anthony Thorley – Tutor in Sacred Geography (University of Wales, Trinity St David), UK. Jason Papenfuss – Sustainability Scholar (Arizona State University), USA. Dr Richard D Durtsche – Professor of Biological Sciencesa and Director of the NKU Research and Education Field Station (Northern Kentucky University), USA. Josefin Wangel – Researcher and Vice Program Director, SLU Urban Futures (SLU – Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences), Sweden.