The Ecological Citizen

A free-to-access publication confronting human supremacy in defence of the Earth



What is the more-than-human world? (A definition)


This term was devised by David Abram (Spell of the Sensuous, 1996) to describe qualities or attributes found in nature which include but exceed those of human beings: for example, sentience, emotion, intelligence, purpose and agency. Part of its point is to throw into question the claims that such attributes apply to humans alone (see What is human supremacy?). Scientific evidence as well as common sense and observation make such claims untenable.

In contrast, the term 'non-human natural world', by excluding humans, is more restrictive, although perfectly defensible in its proper context. The umbrella term 'nature' is often ambiguous with respect to whether more-than-human or non-human is meant.



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