The Ecological Citizen Vol 3 Suppl C 2020: 9–14
Eco-anarchism is the form of political ecology that situates the political most deeply in Earth history and the crisis of the Earth. It can be traced back to the work of geographer-philosopher-revolutionary Jacques Élisée Reclus, who depicted Earth's history as a struggle for the free flourishing of both humanity and nature, and against the forces of domination that constrain that flourishing. Eco-anarchism as a form of radical communitarianism has a primary ecological commitment to promoting the flourishing of the entire global community-of-communities, and a primary anarchic commitment to defending that community from all destructive forces that would crush and extinguish it. Eco-anarchist politics has two major expressions. The first is direct action to prevent the developing social-ecological catastrophe, and the second is the struggle for a comprehensive programme for social and ecological regeneration and the creation of a free ecological society. These two approaches are illustrated here through the radical eco-defense organization Earth First! and through the Sarvodaya Movement for non-violent social transformation.